A Brief History of English Carpets,
and the Stourvale Mill

picture of Woodward Grosvenor buildingThe town of Kidderminster, Worcestershire, lies about 20 miles southwest of Birmingham in the English industrial midlands. It has been a center of weaving for many centuries, and in the mid - late eighteenth century began to specialize in new forms of carpet weaving, rightfully coming to be called the carpet capital of Britain. The historic Stourvale Mill on Green Street was built in the early 1850's under the guidance of Henry Woodward, who had started his company in 1790, and who was joined by Benjamin Grosvenor to operate the first steam powered carpet mill in Britain on the site. The firm of Grosvenor Wilton Company Ltd. remains the major weaver of Brussels and Wilton carpets, and is the only firm with a complete design archive extant that covers over 200 years in business and over 10,000 patterns. J.R. Burrows & Co. are the agents in the United States for historic designs from this archive, which is marketed as the "Stourvale Mill Collection."

Vine and Pomegrante both sidesKidderminster Carpets are a reversible flat weave carpet popular from the 18th century to the early 20th century. This form of carpeting has no pile and the pattern is shown in opposing colors on both faces, making it possible to turn the carpet over when one side was worn or soiled. In North America these carpets were commonly called Ingrain Carpet. None are woven today in the town of Kidderminster, but they are made still in small quantities in the United States, including designs by William Morris.

Look at enlargement of Vine and Pomegranate Kidderminster (Ingrain) Carpet

Picture of Poppy carpet in roomAxminster Carpets are the main product of Kidderminster today, but this product is a relative newcomer from the late 19th century. Taking the name of an earlier form of hand-knotted rug (the finest and most expensive English carpets), Chenille Axminsters, developed in 1839 by James Templeton of Glasgow, simulated the rich quality of the hand-knotted rugs and could weave room size seamless rugs (sadly, these are no longer made anywhere). Spool and gripper Axminsters were a later development that made a durable machine woven carpet with a thick pile, but of a more modest expense than other woven carpets. These are still made in large quantities for hotels, pubs, and residential use. William Morris and C.F.A. Voysey were among the famous designers who drew patterns for Axminster carpets.

Look at enlargement of Axminster Carpet

Picture of loomBrussels and Wilton carpets are today just a small percentage of the overall production of the town of Kidderminster, in the early Picture of Rug on loom19th century they were the major product of the town. Brussels carpets are a level loop carpet where the wool not exposed as pile is carried in a dense backing - colors are drawn to the surface as needed for the pattern, and up to five colors can be used in a single row. By alternating colors, or 'planting the colors' in the rows, many more accent colors can be skilfully introduced into the pattern. Brussels carpets were first woven in the early 18th century, and by the late 18th century Kidderminster was the main center of production for Brussels. Wilton carpets have the same structure as Brussels but the pile is cut open and sheared, producing a velvet-like quality. Although increased mechanization has equalized the pricing, in the 18th and 19th century the velvet pile of Wilton was roughly double the cost of Brussels. During the Regency (in the U.S. the Federal period) Picture of Regency carpet in room Brussels carpets Picture of Medallion carpet in room were the height of luxury for all but the wealthiest homeowners, and Wilton carpets were an extra luxury that few could afford. By the mid-nineteenth century it became common to make the best showing with a Wilton carpet in the best parlor or drawing room , and to use the less expensive Brussels carpet in the lesser rooms of a dwelling. The choice was a personal one, of taste and economy, and every visitor would know instantly the the type of expense laid out in the decorating by the quality of carpet.


The Young Trio by E.V. Rippingille, painted 1829, The Bristol Art Gallery This room is fitted with wall-to-wall Brussels or Wilton carpet in a Turkey pattern typical of designs from the 1800 - 1820 period. A woolen drugget covers the floor to protect the carpet from everyday household activities.

Look at enlargement of Regency era Brussels Carpet, c. 1812 (left)

Look at enlargement of Victorian era Wilton Carpet, c. 1870 (right)

Picture of W.P. Tenny  & Co.Merchants brought Brussels, and later Wilton, carpets to the United States in large quantites starting in the 1790's. Customers found the best selection at major ports, such as Philadelphia, New York and Boston, even after the domestic carpet industry developed in the second quarter of the 19th century. Carpets, made up in 27" widths and usually sewn together on site, were relatively easy luxuries to transport, and the merchants in the largest cities offered the best prices and the latest designs. An early view of a carpet showroom is a trade card showing the W.P. Tenny Carpetings establishment in Boston, Massachusetts, in the early 1850's. Clients are shown inspecting carpet bales arranged around the room and down the center. Each bale contains enough carpet to fit a modest size room wall-to-wall, which was the most common practice. A later view shows a turn-of-the-century showroom in Fall River, Massachusetts, where the carpet selection shown includes Wilton, Brussels and Axminster in the narrow 27" wide bales, and on the bottom level are Ingrain (Kidderminster) carpets, which were woven at a 36" width.

Look at enlargement of A Fall River, Massachusetts, carpet showroom

Picture of Fall River Carpet ShowroomWilton and Brussels carpets remain one of the highest grades and longest wearing of woven carpets. The revival of interest in these carpets is largely due to today's fashion for period interiors, and the continued efforts of museums and homeowners toward greater authenticity of pattern, coloring and design in historic interior design interpretation. The Stourvale Mill collection offers an unparalled selection of historic Wilton and Brussels designs of the late 18th, 19th and early 20th century.

Look at enlargement of W.P. Tenny & Co. Picture

For a more detailed description of the history of carpet weaving, see Floor Coverings for Historic Buildings by Helene von Rosenstiel and Gail Caskey Winkler, Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1988.


All carpet designs are Copyright of Grosvenor Wilton Company Ltd. and J.R. Burrows & Company.

Go to J.R. Burrows & Company Main Page
*J.R. Burrows & Company